Three-phase System of Soils


Soils can be partially saturated (with both air and water present), or be fully saturated (no air content) or be perfectly dry (no water content).

In a saturated soil or a dry soil, the three-phase system thus reduces to two phases only, as shown.

Three Phase System of Soil

Three Phase System of Soil

For the purpose of engineering analysis and design, it is necessary to express relations between the weights and the volumes of the three phases.

The various relations can be grouped into:

  • Volume relations
  • Weight relations
  • Inter-relations